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Remembering: Attributions, Processes, Control in Human Memory
 
 
LarryFest Schedule & Abstracts
(PDF)
 
 
 
Friday, May 31
 
9:00 - 9:45
Coffee, juice, and bagels in Whittaker Hall

 
9:45-10:00 
Words of Welcome: Roddy Roediger, Ed Macias (Provost), Randy Larsen (Chair)


10:00-11:30
Characterizing and Studying Memory
Nairne          Functional versus Structuralist Accounts of Remembering
Bjork            Forgetting as a Friend to Learning
Neely           Methodological Prescriptions for Research on Testing and Retrieval Practice
Dunlosky      Contributions of Subjective Fluency and Theory of Memory to People’s Judgments of Memory
 
11:30 - 11:50  Break

11:50 - 12:35
Memory and Beyond: Separating Processes, Pt I
Yonelinas      Dissociating Processes within Perception and Short-term Memory
Milliken          Episodic Integration in Short-term Remembering and Performance: Evidence for On-line Recollection?
 
 
12:35 - 2:15     Lunch (On your own – Restaurant Recomendations)


2:15 - 3:25
Memory and Beyond: Separating Processes, Pt II
Dobbins         The Heuristic Value of the Dual Process Model of Recognition
McElree         Speed-Accuracy Tradeoffs as Indicators of how Memories are Accessed
Hunt              Process Dissociation Analysis of Cued Recall with Multiple Correct Answers
 
3:25 - 3:45    Break

3:45 - 4:50
Cognitive Control, Pt I
Kelley          Constrained Retrieval in Recognition Memory
Koriat           Knowing by Doing: When Metacognitive Monitoring Follows Metacognitive Control
Lindsay        Recognition Response Bias:  Individual Differences and Materials Effects

 
4:50 – 6:30
Wine and Cheese, Whittaker Hall Foyer
(Dinner is on your own after the reception; Recommended Restaurants.)


Saturday, June 1

9:30 - 10:00
Coffee, juice, and bagels in Whittaker Hall
 

10:00 - 10:45
Cognitive Control, Pt II
Logan          Episodic Contributions to Cognitive Control
Bugg             "Automatic Control" of Stroop Interference
 
10:45 - 11:00    Break 

11:00 - 12:15
Development and Aging, Pt I

Craik             Erroneous recollection in an elderly adult: The case of Velma L.
Jennings        Improving Memory and Executive Function through Recollection Training
Wahlheim    Age Differences in Proactive Effects of Memory: Detection and Recollection of Change

 
12:15 - 1:45     Lunch (On your own – Recommended Restaurants)


1:45 - 3:00
Development and Aging, Pt II
Balota            Attention and Variability as Early Markers for Alzheimer’s Disease
Sommers        You Aren’t Listening to What I Said: False Hearing in Young and Older Adults
Banaji             Developmental Invariance of Social Attitudes

3:00 - 3:15   Break

3:15 - 4:55
Clinical, Social, and Forensic Applications
Engle             Does Working Memory Training Work?         
Hertel             Anxious and Depressive Cognition:  An Abundance of Habit and a Dearth of Control
Payne            An Attributional Approach to Behavior Priming
Roediger         Confidence and Accuracy in Reports from Memory: Obtaining Positive and Negative Correlations


6:30 -
Banquet for speakers and invited guests in Holmes Lounge
 
 





 
Abstracts
 
 
Dissociating processes within perception and short-term memory
Andy Yonelinas  
Separating the processes that contribute to overall task performance is critical in characterizing core cognitive abilities such as memory, and has proven essential in developing neurobiological models of memory. Two recent examples on this topic that are related Larry Jacoby’s work are discussed; one examining the contribution of perception and knowing to visual discrimination, and one examining the influence of resolution and capacity to visual short term memory.
 
 
Knowing by Doing: When Metacognitive Monitoring Follows Metacognitive Control
Asher Koriat
Larry Jacoby's attributional theory of memory implies, along with the James–Lange view, that “subjective experience can involve an attribution or unconscious inference about effects on performance and so follow from, rather than be responsible for, objective performance” (Kelley & Jacoby, 1998, 127–128). Research will be reviewed suggesting that metacognitive judgments are based sometimes on the feedback from control operations. This occurs when the regulation of effort is data-driven. In that case, metacognitive judgments (judgments of learning, confidence) decrease with the amount of effort invested in each item. When effort is goal-driven, in contrast, metacognitive judgments increase with amount of effort. The occurrence of both types of relationship within the same task highlights the delicacy of the attribution processes that have been emphasized by Jacoby and his associates, which contributes to the accuracy of people's monitoring of their own knowledge and performance.

 
Forgetting as a Friend to Learning
Bob Bjork  
We are prone to think that learning is a matter of building up something in our memories and that forgetting is losing some, or all, of what was built up.  In the functional architecture of human learning and memory, though, the relationship between forgetting and learning is not so simple and, in some respects, is quite the opposite: Conditions that create forgetting are often the same conditions that create the potential to achieve new levels of learning.  In several early papers (e.g., Jacoby, 1978; Cuddy & Jacoby, 1982), Larry Jacoby was among the first to emphasize that forgetting can help memory and to provide an interpretation of why that is the case.  In this chapter I discuss the contending conjectures as to why forgetting can foster learning and summarize the experimental evidence relevant to those conjectures.  
 
 
Speed-Accuracy tradeoff as a determinant of how memories are accessed
Brian McElree 
If (or when) there is only one way to access a required memory, there is usually only one way of optimizing performance in recognition and related tasks: A criterion for balancing speed and accuracy can be selected to match the relative importance of each in the task. However, if there is more than one way to access a memory, then the selection of a criterion for balancing speed and accuracy can also determine the relative contribution of different access operations, which provides an additional means of optimizing performance.  This chapter will review speed-accuracy tradeoff studies of memory tasks in which a response could be based on a mixture of outputs from two different operations. Studies were designed so that the two operations would lead to different responses (e.g., yes vs. no response) in some conditions. These conditions provided clear evidence for two distinct memory operations, and provided a way to trace the relative contribution of each operation over time. Collectively, these studies show flexible reliance on the output of different operations to maximize performance under different experimental constraints.

 
Episodic Integration in Short-term Remembering and Performance: Evidence for On-line Recollection?
Bruce Milliken, Chris Fiacconi, Juan Lupianez, Jessica Cali 
Kahneman, Treisman, and Gibbs (1992) introduced the notion that performance in simple identification tasks is governed by the retrieval and updating of temporary episodic representations that they called object files.  Although there is now a great deal of attention and performance data supportive of this framework, until recently no study had addressed the consequences of object file updating for short-term remembering.  We will describe the results of several experiments that show a close relation between the behavioural consequences of object file updating in a performance task (e.g., target localization) and the ability of participants to remember an object file that has been updated.  In this particular context, the processes that support the participant's recollection of an object appear to be the same as the processes that support object file updating effects in performance.
 
 
Age Differences in Proactive Effects of Memory: Detection and Recollection of Change
Chris Wahlheim, Larry Jacoby
 Proactive effects of competing information on subsequent memory depend on the detection and recollection of change (Wahlheim & Jacoby, 2013). Proactive interference occurs when change is detected during study, but not recollected at test. In contrast, proactive interference is eliminated or even reversed (proactive facilitation) when change is recollected. Theories of age differences in memory have attributed age related decline to greater susceptibility to interference, but the empirical evidence is mixed. We explored the mechanisms underlying age differences in proactive interference by comparing younger and older adults’ ability to detect and recollect change. Word pairs were presented in two lists, with some responses changing across lists (A-B, A-D). Participants attempted to detect pairs with changed responses during study of the second list and later recollect that change at the time of test. Results showed that older adults were poorer than younger adults at detecting and recollecting change. This resulted in recall of changed responses being much greater for younger than older adults. However, similar levels of proactive interference were obtained for both groups when change was not recollected. We hold that the recollection of change plays a critical role in facilitating memory by opposing the accessibility of competing responses heightened by retrieval when change was detected. Consequently, age differences in proactive effects of memory can be attributed to differences in the ability to recollect change.
 
 
Constrained Retrieval in Recognition Memory
Colleen Kelley, Michael Alban
Scientific enterprises rely on the invention and exploitation of new methods, and a number of Jacoby's contributions have been to invent new paradigms that advance our understanding of memory.  One of Jacoby's paradigms is "memory for foils", which he used to gain evidence that people query memory during recognition in different ways by attempting to reinstate the processes used in encoding. Does such constrained retrieval pay off in terms of recognition accuracy?  We discuss a number of studies aimed at understanding the effectiveness of constrained retrieval in terms of the role of recollection and familiarity in recognition memory.
 
 
Attention and Variability as Early Markers for Alzheimer's Disease
Dave Balota 
Larry Jacoby has long emphasized the critical relation between attention and memory.  Indeed, he has shown that the recollection deficits in older adults can be produced by simply putting younger adults under attentional load.  We explore the role of attention as an early marker for a disease that has been viewed as a breakdown in episodic memory, Alzheimer’s Disease.  We show that early stage Alzheimer’s disease produces a marked breakdown in attentional control mechanisms, and indeed predicts later conversion to Alzheimer’s disease in healthy control individuals.  We also discuss the relation between attentional control and variability in performance, which is an emerging behavioral marker for the disease in recent literature.
 
 
Episodic Contributions to Cognitive Control
Gordon Logan, Matt Crump 
Cognitive control is often thought of as involving top-down intervention from higher-level control processes.  We present evidence showing that cognitive control is often shaped by retrieval of previous processing episodes
 
 
Erroneous recollection in an elderly adult: The case of Velma L.
Gus Craik 
I will describe an interesting case of an elderly woman that we  studied over a period in Toronto.  She showed hyper-familiarity in many situations -- "you have shown me these holiday snaps before!" -- etc etc. .
 
 
The heuristic value the dual process model of recognition
Ian Dobbins 
I willl compare statistical decision models of episodic recognition with the process orientation exemplified by Larry Jacoby’s dual process model of recognition.  A key focus will be on the emphasis Larry placed on the differential control afforded by recollection versus familiarity/fluency.  It will be stressed that process models can lead to predictions framed in terms of statistical decision models, but that the converse is not generally true.  The chapter will also contrast a research orientation focused on function fit, with Larry Jacoby’s more fruitful emphasis on making novel predictions in new domains via experimental manipulations.
 
 
Improving Memory and Executive Function through Recollection Training
Janine Jennings, Dale Degenbach
Towards the end of my time with Larry, we worked on training consciously-controlled processing using a technique that was dubbed the Repetition-Lag training procedure.  I had put that work aside until about 2002 when I returned to it and I have continued using the technique since that time as well as collaborated with others (Dale Dagenbach extensively).  There have now been a number of studies that have used the technique in cognitively healthy older adults, individuals with MCI and AD, as well as stroke patients.  In addition, the technique has been paired with exercise training in a couple of studies (one of them is Julie Bugg’s work) and if this year goes according to plan will also be paired with a nutritional supplement that enhances brain perfusion.  Finally, Nicole Anderson, who I may also invite to work on this chapter with me, is finishing up a long-term study using Rep-lag training with MCI patients and collecting pre-and-post neuroimaging data.  In short, there are a number of studies that have attempted to train recollection using a technique that originated with Larry and I think a review bringing them together could prove useful.  In particular, the pattern of transfer effects seems to vary across studies and across populations, and synthesizing those outcomes could have some interesting theoretical implications for what this technique is truly targeting.  Note, this also means that “recollection training” may not remain in the title by the end.
 
 
Functional versus Structuralist Accounts of Remembering
Jim Nairne
Most of the explanatory tools used by modern memory researchers--e.g., elaboration, distinctiveness, the encoding-retrieval match--ignore the functional underpinnings of mnemonic phenomena. I will argue that a functional perspective is critical not only for understanding how memory works, but for identifying the important problems that need to be studied and solved. I will focus on a particular kind of functional approach, one based on evolution, and show how it leads to the discovery of new empirical phenomena.
 
 
Methodological prescriptions for research on testing and retrieval practice effects on memory
Jim Neely, Kit W. Cho 
A currently popular area of memory research addresses the following questions. Will subsequent long-term memory for studied material differ when subjects are tested on (receive retrieval practice on) that material instead of restudy it? Are such retrieval practice effects confined to the material that is tested or restudied or will they also occur for nonrestudied or nontested related material that was originally studied along with the restudied or tested material? Will retrieval practice affect the subsequent encoding and/or retrieval of that same material when it is restudied once again and/or will it influence the encoding and/or retrieval of brand new material when subjects expect to receive the same kind of memory test on that brand new material (a so-called test-expectancy effect)?    In this chapter we will selectively review research relevant to each of these questions and provide a detailed analysis of the kinds of research designs and procedural safeguards that one must institute in order  to obtain clear cut answers to these questions and to be able to provide compelling assessments  of the validity of the different theoretical accounts that have been offered to explain retrieval practice effects.      
 
 
The Contribution of Subjective Fluency and Theory of Memory to People’s Judgments of Memory
John Dunlosky 
How people evaluate their learning and memory has fascinated researchers for over 4 decades.  In that time, a major conclusion has been that such self evaluations are based on both (a) the fluency of processing (i.e., as to-be-remember stimuli are easier to process, people think they are better learned) and (b) on people’s folk theory about how memory works.  Despite the number of claims that both factors are influential, very little evidence is available that directly evaluates their contribution.  We provide evidence (from many studies) that supports the startling conclusion that people’s folk theory does influence judgments of memory but that fluency has little (if any) influence.
 
 
"Automatic Control" of Stroop Interference 
Julie Bugg
The quoted part is from Larry's, your, and Sandra's 2003 PB&R paper introducing the item-specific proportion congruence manipulation--not that I needed to remind you of that:) Much of my time spent in Larry's lab entailed working on experiments that aimed to show that the ISPC effect was not simply due to associative learning, but in fact reflected the automatic control concept referred to in the 2003 paper. I would plan to focus the chapter on this concept, detailing the original 2003 ISPC study, the Stroop studies Larry and I subsequently conducted, and those that I and others have worked on since. The idea would be to review those studies that speak directly to the ongoing debate concerning the mechanisms underlying ISPC effects, pointing to the evidence in favor of automatic control. I would also aim to highlight the importance of this work in broadening definitions of cognitive control and rethinking the idea that controlled mechanisms are those that are strategic, deliberate, willed, etc. A final possibility would be to examine the relevance of the concept of automatic control to our understanding of age-related changes in cognition (though I am less certain about including that piece).
 
 
An Attributional Approach to Behavior Priming
Keith Payne 
The effect of subtle primes on people's behavior has attracted a lot of attention, and even more controversy. Highly publicized failures to replicate some behavior priming studies have generated doubt about how reliable these findings are, or if they are real at all. In this talk I will describe my own experience with behavioral priming experiments, starting with initial failures to find priming effects, followed by a review of the literature that led to a new theoretical view of the processes by which primes may influence behavior. That theoretical view is rooted in Larry Jacoby's attributional approach to memory. I will describe experiments based on the attributional approach that provide evidence for replicable effects of primes on behavior, under specific conditions. The attribution approach helps explain why the same prime stimulus can have a variety of effects, ranging from subjective judgments to motivations to overt behavior.

 
Developmental Invariance of Social Attitudes
Marzu Banaji  
I will describe my engagement these past 10 years with developmental questions.  [Prof. Bnaji has done a lot of work on implicit measures of social attitudes (e.g., inter-group or racial biases) in children and adults.]
 
 
You are Not Listening to What I Said: False Hearing in Young and Older Adults
Mitch Sommers 
In most instances, the speech signal provides at least two bases for responding – the acoustic cues that provide information about phonemes and semantic information from the surrounding context. In the present work, we examine whether older adults are overly reliant on contextual information and how this may lead to "false" hearing defined as responding on the basis of context rather than on information within the signal itself.
 
 
Anxious and Depressive Cognition: An Abundance of Habit and a Dearth of Control
Paula Hertel 
For the past 25 years, research conducted in the area of clinical cognition suggests that anxious and depressed individuals are creatures of cognitive habit.  Attention, interpretation, and memory tasks reveal negative biases that reflect well practiced tendencies. Attempts to overcome these habits via controlled procedures seem less successful than attempts to develop new habits.  Larry Jacoby’s process-dissociation procedures provide some support for these claims.
 
 
Does Working Memory Training Work?
Randy Engle
I will discuss the issues surrounding the idea that training on one or more working memory measures should lead to increases on complex reasoning measures and fluid intelligence.  I will report the results of a study that assessed near, moderate, and far transfer after training on the only tasks repeatedly and reliably to show an association to real-world and higher-order cognition.
 
 
Process Dissociation Analysis of Cued Recall with Multiple Correct Answers 
Reed Hunt
I will present a series of three experiments that suggest that independence is not the best model of processes underlying recall cued with a general cue. I am using categorized lists and a category lable cue but the goal is to model the demands on memory for common questions such as what did you do yesterday? Generate-recognize is a better fit.
 
 
Confidence and Accuracy in Reports from Memory: Obtaining Positive and Negative Correlations
Roddy Roediger, Jason Finley, Victor Sungkhassettee  
Researchers examining witness identification of suspects in a line-up have debated which of two techniques is most sensitive (that is, which technique increases correct identifications of suspects and minimizes mis-identifications). One technique is the simultaneous line-up (all possible suspects viewed simultaneously) and the other (often recommended) procedure is the sequential line-up (seeing individuals one at a time and making a judgment on each). We review the debates about these two techniques and we report research examining these two procedures (and other related procedures) under a variety of circumstances (e.g., the lures or distractors are either relatively similar to the target or are dissimilar). In addition, we examine the recognition techniques with different types of materials (faces, as in typical line-up procedures and word lists that are more typical in traditional laboratory experiments).  The quest is to see if one type of recognition procedure will be generally superior across all (or most) combinations of conditions or whether the superiority of one technique to another will depend instead on other contextual factors. The implications are important both for theories of recognition memory and for the critical practice application of line-up design.

 
Recognition Memory Response Bias: Individual Difference and Materials Effects
Steve Lindsay, Justin Kantner, Kaitlyn Fallow, and Mario Baldassari  
In Part I, I’ll describe a number of studies revealing that if an individual is conservative or liberal on one test of recognition memory, s/he is likely to demonstrate the same response bias on another test of recognition memory.  Recognition memory response bias does not seem to be correlated with personality variables (e.g., impulsivity) and also appears to be unrelated to risk-taking gambles.  In Part II, I’ll report a number of studies attempt to explain why it is that subjects tend to be markedly conservative when recognizing paintings.