Topic Outlines

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Go to lecture: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28.




Lecture 1. GENIUS I: DEFINITIONS & MANIFESTATIONS

I. Origins of term

A. Roman etymology
B. Romantic expansion
C. Psychometric measurement
D. Historiometric assessment
II. Manifestations of phenomenon
A. Leadership
B. Creativity
III. Illustrations: Eponyms

IV. Critical questions

Exam Questions 1,2,4

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Lecture 2. GENIUS II: HISTORIOMETRIC MEASUREMENT

I. Introduction

A. The problem: How to assess the magnitude of genius
B. A solution: Armchair evaluations
C. Some objections
II. Measurement strategies
A. Polls
1. Surveys of the experts: Reputation
2. Surveys of the masses: Popularity
B. Archives
1. Examples
a. Performance frequencies
b. Space measures
c. Citation indicators
2. Evaluation
III. Measurement principles
A. Scales of measurement: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio
B. Adequacy of measurement: Reliability and Validity
IV. Conclusion

Exam Questions 1,4

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Lecture 3. LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS: PROBLEM SOLVING

I. The nature of the technique

A. The logic of causal inference
B. The asset of laboratory studies
II. Classic inquiries
A. Gestalt school
1. Insight experiments
2. Functional fixedness
3. Incubation periods
4. Optimal representations
B. Information-processing school
1. Reasoning processes
a. Deductive reasoning
b. Inductive reasoning
2. Problem-solving processes
a. Problem types
b. Tactics
c. Protocol analysis
III. Modern developments
A. Individual differences
B. Social processes
IV. Final observations
A. The optimistic implications
B. The pessimistic reality
Exam Questions 1,4

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Lecture 4. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE & COMPUTER SIMULATION

I. Early antecedents: Can machines emulate the mind?
 

A. From calculators to computers
1. Arithmetic machines: Abacus to Pascal
2. Programmable computers: Babbage & Ada to ENIAC
B. The emergence of the Artificial Intelligence movement
1. Information theory and cybernetics
2. General problem solvers
II. Three illustrations
 
A. Expert systems
1. Examples: COOKER & MYCIN
2. Criticism
B. Chess masters
1. Rival approaches
a. Knowledge-based (expert) programming
b. Power (brute-force) programming
2. Specific manifestation: DEEP BLUE
3. Critique: Is DEEP BLUE a chess genius?
C. Discovery programs
1. Basic assumption: Genius = Problem solving writ large
2. Examples: BACON, GLAUBER, STAHL, DALTON, etc.
3. Evaluation
III. Broad critique: Can computers exhibit genius?

Exam Questions 1,4

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Lecture 5. CONTENT ANALYSIS: SUBJECTIVE & OBJECTIVE

I. Goal of the technique

II. Documents and products

A. Documents
B. Products
1. Written works
2. Visual creations
3. Musical compositions
III. Types of content analytical schemes
A. Subjective assessments: Human judges
1. Schemes inspired by standard psychometric instruments
2. Schemes devised specifically for content analysis
B. Objective counts: Computer programs
1. Verbal materials
2. Nonverbal materials
IV. Pros & cons
A. Cons
1. Application
2. Definition
3. Effort
4. Validity
B. Pros
1. Diversity
2. Uniqueness
3. Unobstrusiveness
4. Computerizability
Exam Questions 2,4

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Lecture 6. PSYCHOMETRIC METHODS: IQ TESTS

I. The nature of psychometrics

A. Test types
1. Individual vs. group tests
2. Single vs. multiple dimensions
3. Cognitive vs. personality measures
B. Test construction
1. Collecting items
2. Demonstrating their cohesion
3. Assessing reliability
4. Establishing validity
II. Key example: The IQ test
A. Historical origins: Whence came the IQ?
1. Francis Galtonís Anthropometric Laboratory
2. Alfred Binetís test & the Stanford-Binet IQ
3. Subsequent developments
B. Current controversies: What does IQ mean?
1. Dimensionality: Single vs. multiple intelligences?
2. Etiology: Genetic vs. experiential causes?
3. Meaning: Technology vs. theory?
4. Implications: Scholastic vs. real-life success?
C. Recent developments: Where are IQ tests going?
III. General evaluation of psychometric measurement
 
A. Ethnocentric biases
B. Personal idiosyncrasies
Exam Questions 1,2,4

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Lecture 7. LONTITUDINAL STUDIES: TERMANíS GIFTED CHILDREN

I. Advantages of approach
 

A. Developmental norms
B. Individual differences
II. Example: Termanís classic Genetic Studies of Genius
A. Background
B. The series of inquiries
1. Method
a. The sample
b. The measures
2. Results
a. Volume 1: Gifted Children
i. Family background
ii. Physique and health
iii. Educational history
iv. Childhood interests & preoccupations
v. Character tests
vi. Trait ratings
b. Volume 3: The Promise of Youth
c. Volume 4: The Gifted Child Grows Up
d. Volume 5: The Gifted Group at Mid-life
3. Current status
III. Disadvantages of approach
A. Expense
B. Attrition
C. Measurement
Exam Questions 1,2,3,4

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Lecture 8. HISTORIOMETRIC INQUIRIES: COXíS 301 GENIUSES

I. Antecedents: Quetelet, Galton, & Cattell

II. Definition: Frederick Woods

III. Classic example: Catharine Coxís (1926) Early Mental Traits

A. Impetus for the inquiry
1. Termanís (1917) IQ estimate for Galton
2. Termanís longitudinal study & the missing volume
B. The measures
1. IQ measurement
a. Sample criteria
b. Data compilation
c. Score calculation
2. Character measurement
a. Sample truncation
b. Measures: 67 traits
C. Conclusions
1. IQ consequences
a. Contrasts among domains of achievement
b. Relation between IQ & eminence
2. Character consequences
a. Personality profiles across domains
b. The role of personality in attaining fame
IV. Advantages & disadvantages

Exam Questions 1,2,3,4

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Lecture 9. MATHEMATICAL MODELS: IQ & INFLUENCE

I. The mathematical sciences: The Pythagorean tradition
 

A. The importance of mathematics in the "exact" sciences
B. The historical origins of this idea
1. Ancient Greeks: Pythagoras, Euclid, & Ptolemy
2. Scientific revolution: Copernicus, Kepler, & Galileo
II. The method of modeling: The Newtonian tradition
A. Isaac Newtonís 1687 Mathematical Principles
1. Celestial mechanics from terrestrial mechanics
2. Approach: Definitions, axioms, lemmas, theorems
3. Exemplar for the mathematical sciences
B. General procedure: 3 steps
1. Formulation
2. Solution
3. Application
C. Types of models: Deterministic vs. probabilistic
III. Illustration: IQ and influence
A. The problem: Relation between IQ and leadership/creativity
B. The modelís central assumptions
C. Four successive models
1. Intellectual superiority
2. Comprehension factor
3. Criticism factor
4. Intellectual stratification
IV. Pros & cons of technique

Exam Questions 2,4

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Lecture 10. CREATIVITY TESTS: CQ

I. Goal: a "Creativity Quotient" or CQ

II. Types & examples

A. Cognitive style: How do creatorís think?
1. Verbal tests
a. Remote associates
b. Word associations
c. Fable endings
d. Consequences
2. Visual tests
a. Ingenuity
b. Unusual uses
c. Product improvement
d. Pattern meanings
B. Personality disposition: What makes creators tick?
1. Preference for complexity: Barron-Welsh Art Scale
2. Self-concept: The ACL CPS
3. Values & interests: How Do You Think Scale
C. Biographical background: Where are creatorsí roots?

D. Creative achievement: By their fruits shall we know them?

III. Problems: Are the tests valid?
A. Divergent validity
B. Convergent validity
C. Predictive validity
D. Construct validity
V. Upshot: Is there a CQ test?

Exam Questions 1,2,4

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Lecture 11. PERSONALITY: INTERVIEW & ASSESSMENT

I. The approach & its ambition

A. Sample contemporary celebrities
B. Subject them to extensive assessment, including:
1. Standard personality measures
2. Group & individual interviews
3. Observer-based ratings from multiple assessors
4. Biographical inventories & other miscellany
II. Representative inquiries: Solo vs. institutional studies
A. Solo inquiries: Anne Roeís (1953) The Making of a Scientist
1. Selection
2. Interview & assessment
3. Specific results
a. Intelligence
b. Thinking habits
c. Projective measures
d. Life histories
4. General portrait
B. Institutional inquiries: The IPAR tradition at UCB
1. Frank Barronís professional writers
2. Ravenna Helsonís women mathematicians
3. Donald MacKinnonís illustrious architects
III. Evaluation of contributions
A. Richness of data
B. Resources
C. Applicability
D. Intrusiveness
Exam Questions 2,3,4

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Lecture 12. COGNITION: INTEGRATIVE COMPLEXITY

I. The information-processing perspective

A. Key to understanding genius: Learning how data are manipulated
1. Creativity:  work on problem solving
2. Leadership: work on integrative complexity
B. Two methodological approaches
1. The psychometric: Paragraph Completion Test
2. The content analytical adaptation of the PCT
II. Leadership
A. Performance
1. Revolutionary success
2. Military prowess
3. Election victory
B. Decision making
1. Responding to crises
2. Anticipating crises
a. Groupthink
b. Surprise attacks
C. Ideology & policy
1. Isolationism
2. Ideologues
a. Elected officials
b. Supreme court justices
c. Soviet politicians
III. Conclusion

Exam Questions 2,4

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Lecture 13. MOTIVATION: ACHIEVEMENT, POWER, & AFFILIATION

I. The Thematic Appercepton Test (TAT) revisited

A. Murrayís (1938) Explorations in Personality
B. TAT projective measure
1. Achievement motive (nAch)
2. Affiliation motive (nAff)
3. Power motive (nPower)
C. Application to content analysis of archival materials ®
1. Motivation in history
2. Two programs: Economic vs. political leadership
II. Content analytical applications
A. Economic leadership: Achievement motivation & prosperity
1. Classic theory: M. Weberís "Protestant work ethic"
2. Modern revision: nAch and entrepreneurial capitalism
3. Tests: McClellandís (1961) The Achieving Society
a. Cross-cultural: preliterate & industrial
b. Transhistorical: from Greece to the U.S.A.
B. Political leadership: Power motivation & performance
1. Winterís (1973) Power Motive
a. The Don Juan theme in national literatures
b. Motive imagery in presidential inaugural addresses
2. Motivation & performance in the U.S. presidency
3. Further extensions of technique
III. Critique

Exam Questions 2,3,4

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Lecture 14. MADNESS VS. MENTAL HEALTH

I. The mad-genius controversy

A. History of the debate
B. Psychiatrists vs. humanistic psychologists
II. The empirical findings
A. Historiometric studies
1. Lists
2. Percentages
3. Profiles
B. Psychometric studies
1. Personality: 16 PF, EPQ, & MMPI
2. Cognition
a. Increased allusive thought & overinclusion
b. Reduced latent inhibition
C. Psychiatric studies
1. Clinical diagnoses
2. Congenital disorders
III. Continuing controversies
A. How precise are the diagnostic categories?
B. Talking about half empty vs. half full?
C. What pathology is most strongly associated with genius?
D. Why does the incidence vary across achievement domains?
E. What is the role of genetic inheritance?
F. How are the factors causally connected?
Exam Questions 1,2,3,4

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Lecture 15. AGE & ACHIEVEMENT: LONGITUDINAL CHANGES

I. Fundamental question: An optimal age for genius?

A. When does achievement begin?
B. When does achievement peak?
C. When does achievement end?
II. Empirical findings
A. Creativity
1. History of research
2. Central results
a. Typical age curve
b. Interdisciplinary differences
B. Leadership
1. Measurement problem
2. Some characteristic results
3. Contrasts among leadership domains
a. Religious leaders
b. Political leaders
4. Parallel contrasts in life span
III. Methodological issues
A. Quality not quantity?
B. Differential competition?
C. Aggregation errors?
IV. Theoretical interpretations: Extrinsic versus intrinsic factors

V. Conclusion

Exam Questions 2,3

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Lecture 16. LIFETIME OUTPUT: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

I. Introduction: The Ortega hypothesis

II. The productive elite: Productivity as the hallmark of creative genius

A. The cross-sectional distribution
1. The Dennis percentages
2. The Lotka law
3. The Price law
B. Theoretical explanations
1. Upper tail of normal distribution?
2. Cumulative advantage?
3. Multiplicative functions?
4. Combinatory model?
II. Quantity vs. quality: Does productivity = creativity?
A. Typology: Prolific, Silent, Perfectionists, and Mass-Producers
B. The facts and their implications
III. The determinants of lifetime productivity
A. The three logical components
1. Precocity, longevity, & output rate
2. Their mathematical independence
3. Yet their empirical correlation
B. Theoretical interpretations
1. Cumulative advantage
2. Combinatorial process
Exam Questions 1,2,3,4

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Lecture 17. EXPERIMENTAL AESTHETICS

I. Historical antecedents

A. The foundation
1. Philosophical aesthetics from Plato to Kant
2. Experimental aesthetics: Fechner
a. Elements of Psychophysics (1860)
b. Study of the Golden Section (1865)
c. Study of Holbeinís Madonna (1871)
d. Elements of Aesthetics (1876)
B. Modern developments
1. Production
2. Perception
3. Judgment ->
II. The "new experimental aesthetics"
A. The basic paradigm
1. The theory: hedonic value & arousal potential
2. The research: art-like stimuli & preferences
B. Three classic examples
1. Visual arts: Francès (1976)
2. Music: Steck & Machotka (1975)
3. Literature: Kamman (1966)
III. Critique
A. Accomplishments
B. Liabilities
IV. Alternative?

Exam Questions 2,4

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Lecture 18. COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF MASTERWORKS

I. Compositional style: Paisley (1964)

A. Impetus: "minor encoding habits" and personal style
1. Renaissance artists: Ears, hands, & stones
2. Literary figures from Homer to Shakespeare
B. Application to music
1. Two-note transition probabilities for first 4 notes
2. Tests against unknown samples
3. The computerís superiority to listeners, even experts
II. The first six notes: What can they tell us?
A. Sample: 15,618 themes by 479 composers
B. Measure: Melodic originality
1. Calculation by computer
2. Validation
3. Association with critical variables
 
            a. Variation over time
            b. Correspondence with life events
            c. Effect on aesthetic success
III. Computer analyses of other artistic creations

Exam Questions 2,4

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Lecture 19. DEVELOPMENT I: CHILD PRODIGIES & THE GIFTED

I. Child prodigies: The intimidating few

A. Examples: Historical and contemporary
B. Questions
1. What is a child prodigy?
2. Where do they originate?
3. What determines their domain of achievement?
4. Are prodigies geniuses?
5. Why donít all prodigies become geniuses?
II. Gifted children: The talented many
A. What is a gifted child?
1. Psychometric definitions
2. Behavioral definitions
3. Comprehensive definitions
B. What are gifted children like?
1. Getzels & Jacksonís (1962) classic study
2. Wallach & Koganís (1965) follow-up
C. How can giftedness be cultivated?
III. Savants: The tragic exceptions
A. Examples: Mathematical, artistic, musical
B. Lessons
1. Neurological commonalities with prodigies
2. Modular nature of intellect
3. Integrative nature of creative genius
Exam Questions 1,2,3

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Lecture 20. DEVELOPMENT II: FAMILY ENVIRONMENT

I. Three broad circumstances

A. Birth order
1. Representative findings
2. Explanations
a. Intellectual development: Zajoncís confluence model
b. Personality development:
i. Stewartís Adlerian model
ii. Sullowayís Darwinian model
B. Childhood stress
1. Parental loss & orphanhood
a. Anecdotal evidence
b. Empirical data
c. Interdisciplinary differences
d. Explanations
2. Other stressful events & conditions
C. Enriched environment
1. General profile
a. Socioeconomic class
b. Religious beliefs
c. Leisure activities
2. Contrasts among achievement domains
II. Interpretations: The nature-nurture issue
A. Nurture
B. Nature
Exam Questions 2,3,4

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Lecture 21. DEVELOPMENT III: EDUCATION

I. Introduction to the problem: Albert Einsteinís views

II. The facts of the case

A. Scholastic success
1. Attitudes
a. Towards school
b. Teachers towards them
2. Performance
a. Primary & secondary education
b. Higher education
B. Levels of formal training: Three historiometric inquiries
1. Coxís (1926) 301 geniuses
2. 33 U.S. presidents
3. Goertzelsí (1978) 317 modern eminent
III. Broader interpretative issues

IV. Final note: The role of marginality

A. Three varieties of marginality
1. Cultural: Immigrants & minority groups vs. native born
2. Geographical: Provincials vs. cosmopolitans
3. Professional: Outsiders vs. insiders
B. The impact of professional marginality
Exam Questions 2,3

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Lecture 22. DEVELOPMENT IV: SOCIAL CONTEXT

I. The clustering of genius

A. Two classic studies
1. Francis Galtonís 1869 Hereditary Genius
2. Alfred Kroeberís 1944 Configurations of Culture Growth
B. Possible explanations
1. External
2. Internal
II. Role-models & mentors
A. Aggregate analyses
1. The principles of generational time-series analysis
a. Slicing history into 20-year generations
b. Assigning persons according to floruits
c. Developmental, productive, and consolidative periods
d. Causal implications
2. Illustration: 10,160 geniuses of Chinese civilization
B. Individual analyses
1. Leaders: 342 European kings, queens, & sultans
2. Creators: 772 artists of Western civilization
III. Social networks of genius
A. Aggregate analyses
B. Individual analyses
IV. Final probe: Whence arises the first genius?

Exam Questions 2,3

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Lecture 23. GENIUS VS. ZEITGEIST I: ART

I. Extrinsic forces: Externalist accounts

A. Materialistic reflections
1. Marxist theory
2. Empirical data: Social stratification & Greek art
B. Idealistic dialectic
1. Hegelian motive
2. Illustration: Sorokinís (1937-41) magnum opus
a. Basic concepts
i. Culture mentalities
ii. Principle of limits
iii. Law of immanent change
b. Consequences for art: Ideational vs. visual styles
3. Implication: Cross-media artistic styles?
II. Intrinsic impetus: Internalist interpretations
A. Progressive adaptation
1. The idea of artistic progress
2. Case: Photographic realism in art
3. Precautions
B. Evolutionary expression: Colin Martindaleís theory
III. Conclusion

Exam Questions 2

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Lecture 24. GENIUS VS. ZEITGEIST II: LITERATURE

I. Theories of literary change: Are writers literary epiphenomena?

II. Martindaleís psychological theory of aesthetic evolution

A. The theory
1. Variation-selection model a la Darwin
a. Selection
i. Natural: adaptive success
ii. Sexual: hedonic value
b. Variation
i. Regression: Maximize primary process
ii. Elaboration: Minimize secondary process
2. Implications: Trends in
a. Arousal potential
b. Primary process
c. Stylistic change
B. The research: Literary change
1. Content analytical studies
a. Poetry
b. Short stories
c. Lyrics for popular songs
d. Literary criticism
2. Experimental simulation
C. Critique
III. Conclusion: Literary creativity in context

Exam Questions 2,4

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Lecture 25. GENIUS VS. ZEITGEIST III: PHILOSOPHY

I. Intellectual history: Rival notions of etiology

A. The lone thinker meditating in an isolated retreat, or
B. The massive enertia of the intellectual tradition?
II. Empirical inquiries
A. Generational analyses
1. Method
a. 2,012 philosophers from Western civilization
b. Generational time series: 540 B.C. to A.D. 1900
c. Philosophical positions
i. Experience vs. reason or faith
ii. Matter vs. spirit
iii. Being vs. becoming
iv. Universals vs. particulars
v. Individual vs. society
vi. Determinism vs. free will
vii. Pleasure vs. Charity
2. Results
a. Intellectual inertia
b. Hegelian thesis-antithesis
c. Active vs. receptive beliefs
d. Phenomenon of intellectual polarization
B. Individual-generational analysis
1. Hypotheses
2. Method
3. Results and Discussion
III. The great thinker & the intellectual milieu revisited

Exam Questions 1,2,3,4

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Lecture 26. GENIUS VS. ZEITGEIST IV: SCIENCE

I. Sociocultural Determinism

A. The presumed proof: Multiple discovery and invention
B. The implications for studying creative genius
1. No latitude for chance: Whence serendipity?
2. No room for the person: Whence psychology?
3. No multiples in the arts: Whence scientific creativity?
II. Critique of traditional thesis
A. Logical issues
1. Universals vs. particulars
a. Generic categories
b. Central messages
c. Adumbrationism
2. Independence vs. antecedence
3. Simultaneity vs. rediscovery
4. Inevitability vs. eventuality
a. Necessary vs. sufficient causes
b. Rediscovery as anomaly
B. Empirical issues
1. Multiple grades
2. Degree of simultaneity
3. Multiples participation
4. Necessary conditions
III. Implications

Exam Questions 1,2,4

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Lecture 27. GENIUS VS. ZEITGEIST V: POLITICS

I. Three Test Cases

A. Military leaders: Victory on the battlefield
1. Single-case study: Napoleon
2. Multiple-case study: 326 land battles
B. Kings, queens, & sultans: Hereditary & absolute rulers
1. Frederick Woods (1906, 1913)
2. Pitirim Sorokin (1925, 1926): reign length & greatness
3. Two follow-up studies of 342 monarchs (Simonton, 1983, 1984)
C. U.S. presidents: Elected & constitutional executives
1. Election success
a. Personal attributes
b. Situational characteristics
2. Popularity in polls
a. Intranational influences
b. International influences
3. Objective performance
a. Foreign policy
b. Domestic policy
4. Historical greatness
II. Consolidation

Exam Questions 1,2, 3

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Lecture 28. CREATIVITY AND LEADERSHIP: FINAL INQUIRIES

I. Definition

A. Venn diagram: Genius, creativity, & leadership
B. Enigmas
1. Creativity/leadership subset of genius?
2. Creativity/leadership not contained in genius?
3. Genius that is neither creativity nor leadership?
4. Creativity that overlaps leadership?
II. Identification
A. Developmental antecedents?
B. Personality traits?
C. Objective behaviors?
D. Social context?
III. Intervention
A. Considerations
1. Nature or nurture?
2. Genius or zeitgeist?
B. Evaluation
IV. Interpretation

Exam Questions 1,2,3,4

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Last Revised: January 7, 2011.