Lecture Notes
Phrenologist's Map of the MindBelow are the notes for all of the lectures in this course. They provide the essential information covered during each lecture, including both overhead projector and PowerPoint presentations. Of course, some items have been omitted, namely, pictures, graphs, anecdotes, cartoons, jokes, extensive quotations, and incidental information about major events and figures in the history of psychology. In other words, the notes include just the kind of material that should be included in your own lecture notes.  On the other hand, sometimes information provided here will not have been discussed in class. Because I try to be responsive to your questions during the course of the lecture, I will occasionally delete less critical material in order to cover everything essential by the end of the lecture hour.  Such omitted topics are adequately covered in the textbook anyway.

Please note the following abbreviations:
fl. = floruit (flourished), c. = circa (approximately), B.C.E. = Before the Common Era (i.e., “B.C.”)

Moreover, the chronology of contributions are often given in the following form “(date/age)” For example for the William James lecture one can read “Principles of Psychology (1890/48)” which means that the book was published in 1890 when James was 48 years old.  Alternatively, the information might be given as "in 1890 (48)."


Part I: Roots in Philosophy\\

Introduction | The Ancients | Medieval & Renaissance | Descartes | British Empiricists | Continental Rationalists | Pseudo Sciences

Part II: Becoming a Science
French Clinicians | British Evolutionists | Galton | German Physiologists | Wundt | James

Part III: Emergence of Schools
Associationism | Structuralism | Functionalism | Behaviorism I | Behaviorism II | Gestalt Psychology | Psychoanalysis I | Psychoanalysis II

Part IV: Modern Viewpoints
Metasciences | Scientific Genius | Humanistic Psychology | Cognitive Science | Contemporary Psychology | Conclusion


Why study the history of psychology?

Intrinsic interest of history!
The lessons and wisdom of history!
Understanding the key issues of the discipline!
Understanding the discipline as a science!
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The Pre-Socratics

Thales (640-550 B.C.E.)
naturalism (phusis as water)
prediction (solar eclipse 585 B.C.E.)
Pythagoras (fl. ca. 531 B.C.E.)
soul vs. body distinction
number and mathematics
Heraclitus (540-480 B.C.E.)
incessant flux; conflict
phusis = fire
Socratic Contemporaries
Protagoras (480-410 B.C.E.)
relativism and individualism
persuasion; Sophism
 Democritus (ca. 460-370 B.C.E.)
determinism, materialism, atomism
perception: eidola
ethics: hedonism
The Athenian Triad
 Socrates (469-399 B.C.E.)
Basic Ideas
Subject matter
ethics > natural philosophy
dictum: know thyself
dialectic method
Socratic irony
Influence: his pupil, Plato
 Plato (427-347 B.C.E.):
Biographical background
aristocratic family
political involvement
pupil of Socrates (Phaedo)
founded Academy (Akademia) 387 B.C.E. (closed in 529 by Justinian)
ideas, universal forms
reason > experience
nativism (anamnesis)
reason > pleasure; soul > body
Influence: Stoicism, Neoplatonism, Christianity, Continental Idealism
Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.)
Biographical Context
physician father
pupil of Plato
founded Lyceum: Peripatetic philosophy
after 323 B.C.E. left Athens
Ideas: logic, biology, and psychology
Peri Psyches (De Anima): 3 souls
vegetative (nutrition & reproduction)
animal (sensitivity & locomotion)
human (reason)
On Memory and Reminiscence:
tabula nuda
association: similarity, contiguity, contrast
Rhetoric: principles of persuasion
Ethics: the Golden Mean
Influence: Islamic & Christian thought
The Heritage of the Athenian Golden Age
rationalism vs. empiricism
being vs. becoming
individual vs. society
qualitative vs. quantitative analysis
descriptive vs. prescriptive theory
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The Aftermath of the Classical Period

Hellenistic Traditions
Skepticism: Pyrrho of Elis (c. 360-270 B.C.E.)
Epicurianism: Epicurus (341-270 B.C.E.); Lucretius (94-55 B.C.E.)
Philosophies of Life Under the Roman Empire
Stoicism: Zeno of Citium (333-262 B.C.E.); Epictetus (c. 55-c. 135); Marcus Aurelius (120-180)
Neo-Platonism: Plotinus (204-270)
Christianity: Augustine (354-430)
 The End of Classical Thought: Boethius (c. 480-524)
Medieval Thought
The Islamic Interim: Avicenna (980-1037); Maimonides (1135-1204)
The Debates of the Scholastics
Sense vs. Reason: John Scotus Erigena (c. 810-877)
Realism vs. Nominalism: Pierre Abélard (1079-1142)
The Thomastic Synthesis: Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
The Scholastic Dissenters
Roger Bacon (1214-1294)
Johannes Duns Scotus (1266/74-1308)
William Ockham (c. 1300-1349)
The Renaissance
Philosophical Innovation
Scientific Revolution
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Life and work

Important Works
Discours de la méthode (1637/ 41)
Meditationes de prima philosophia (1641/ 45)
Principia philosophiae (1644 /48)
Les passiones de l'âme (1649/53)
Le Monde (1650/posthumously)
Influence on His Thought
1. Opposition to authority and dogma: iconoclastic
2. Mathematics and metaphysics: rationalistic system
3. Scientific and philosophical revolutionaries
The Cartesian Method
1. Doubt everything; be skeptical; accept nothing except that which is clear and certain – the self-evidently true
2. Analyze the problem into its parts and treat each separately
3. Arrange thoughts from the simple to the complex
4. Provide full and complete enumeration of all aspects of the phenomenon; omit nothing, without exception
Cartesian Psychology
The Mind-Body Dualism
The Mind - pure spirit, free, rational
The Body -
material (hydraulic) machine
hence, “physics of physiology”
reflexes (undulatio reflexa)
The Dilemma: how interaction?
Mind-Body Interactionism
The pineal gland (conarium)
Derived ideas (through experience)
Innate ideas (through consciousness); hence nativist
Some Cartesian Successors
Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655)
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
Nicolas Malebranche (1638-1715)
Pierre Bayle (1647-1706)
Julien de La Mettrie (1709-1751)
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Pre-Cartesian English Thinkers

Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
Life and Career
student of law and politics at Cambridge
offices under Elizabeth I and James I
accused of bribery in 1621
Chief Works
Essays (1597/36)
The Advancement of Learning (1605/44)
Novum Organum (1620/59)
abandoned a priori speculation
proposed inductive method
warning regarding various “idols”
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
son of clergyman, sickly as youth
Oxford education (Aristotle & Scholastics)
European travels with English nobles
loyalist during English Civil War
Ideas: Leviathan (1651/63)
Materialistic monism:
1. Mind is brain substance (reductionism)
2. Activity in brain creates images and ideas (epiphenomenalism)
3. Whole universe merely particles of matter in motion (atomism)
Collectivistic and hedonistic ethics:
1. Humans driven by pleasure and pain
2. Necessity for social compact
3. Hierarchical social system with authoritarian government at top
Post-Cartesian British Thinkers
John Locke (1632-1704)
Life and Career
father an attorney
Oxford education
contacts with scientists (Boyle, etc.)
exile to Holland 1683-89
Chief Works
Letters Concerning Toleration (1689/57)
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690/58)
The Origin of Ideas
no innate ideas: “white paper”
rather, empirical source
The Types of Ideas
Primary qualities
Secondary qualities
Berkeley & Hume
George Berkeley (1685-1753)
Irish born
educated Trinity College, Dublin
world travels: Italy, Rhode Island
became Bishop of Cloyne
Works and Ideas
An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision (1709/24)
1. eye does not innately perceive distance
2. learns distance signs from tactual, kinesthetic, and muscular experience
3. signs include convergence, interposition, relative size, etc.
A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710/25):
idealistic monism
1. to be is to be perceived (esse est percipi)
2. universals are illusions
3. problem of solipsism
4. solution: benevolent all-powerful God!
German idealists
David Hume (1711-1776)
a younger son born in Edinburgh
where studied law (but did not graduate)
various public offices
Treatise Upon Human Nature (1739-40/28-29)
Ideas: Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding (1748/37): skepticism
1. knowledge merely impressions and ideas
2. ideas bound by association (contiguity, similarity, cause/effect)
3. cannot know universals: metaphysics useless
4. no absolute or certain knowledge
5. even mind and self mere impression
Thomas Reid (1710-1796)
Leibniz and Kant
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Spinoza (1632-1677)
born Amsterdam of Jewish-Portuguese parents
mother died when 6
lens grinder by trade
greatest works published posthumously, specially the Ethics (1677/45)
General approach
Pantheism from
Renaissance Neo-Platonism and
Cartesian philosophy
Geometric method
Specific application
Mind-body problem resolved through
double-aspect monism
strict psychic determinism
Epistemology: identity hypothesis
Ethics: reason as restraint on passion
German Idealists
German physiologists
Leibniz (1643-1716)
father professor moral philosophy at Leipzig but died age 6
extremely precocious
studied law
doctorate at age 21
entered diplomatic service
knew leading figures of day
great mathematician:
calculating machine
binary arithmetic
New Essays on Human Understanding: attack on Locke’s empiricism

mind-body problem resolved through

psychological parallelism
pre-established harmony
petites perceptions: thresholds of awareness
Influence: Christian Wolff (1679-1754), and hence to Kant
Kant (1724-1804)
Life and Career
Early development
born in Königsberg; father tradesman
mother pious & intelligent
student of philosophy and mathematics
theory of heavens; nebular hypothesis (multiple)
private tutor, then privat docent, then professor 1770-97 (46-75)
poor; never married; fixed routine
brilliant and popular lecturer
Leibnizian-Wolffian philosophy
British Empiricists; Hume’s skepticism
Critique of Pure Reason (1781/57)
Critique of Practical Reason (1788/64)
Critique of Judgment (1790/66)
Theory of knowledge: pure reason
Integration of three epistemologies
Empiricism (sensation as content)
Rationalism (categories of thought)
Skepticism (phenomena vs. noumena)
Curious consequence: no psychology
mathematics inapplicable
experimentation impossible
but anthropology?
Theory of ethics: practical reason; categorical imperative
viewed himself as a Copernicus
difficult read
yet profound impact - the greatest since Descartes

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Mesmerism to Hypnotism

Franz Mesmer (1733-1815) The Aftermath
Marquis de Puységur (1751-1825):
artificial somnambulism
post-hypnotic suggestion and amnesia
José Custodio di Faria (1756-1819): lucid sleep
John Elliotson (1791-1868): Zoist (1843-1856)
James Esdaile (1808-1859): 1300 operations in India
James Braid (1795-1860)
neuro-hypnology, hence hypnotism
supported Puységur’s idea of patient susceptibility
Phrenology to Localization of Brain Function
Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828)
Scientific Contributions
Introduced new dissection techniques
Important discoveries about the central nervous system
Gray versus white matter
Hemispheres connected by commissures
Fibers from spinal cord cross over in lower brain
Higher mental functions related to size of cortex
Pseudo-Scientific Mistake
Influenced by
Physiognomy (Johann Kaspar Lavater, 1741-1801)
Faculty Psychology (Dugald Stewart, 1753-1828)
Developed: Organology
Specific brain localization of each faculty
Faculty development associated with cortical tissue
Magnitude of tissue determines shape of skull (hence craniometry)
The Aftermath
Transformation into phrenology: Johann Caspar Spurzheim (1776-1832)

But major criticisms: Pierre Flourens (1794-1867)

ablation studies
actions propres vs. action commune
Yet revival of localization concept
Paul Broca (1825-1880): motor aphasia
Carl Wernicke (1848-1905): sensory aphasia
Grain of truth, but
overextended beyond data
failed to subject to rigorous test
succumbed to excessive popularization
Caused professional rejection that
“threw the baby out with the bath water” and thus
retarded scientific understanding
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The Beginnings

Philippe Pinel (1745-1826)
Institutions: Bedlam (London); Bicêtre & Salpêtrière (Paris)
Theory: Somatic view of mental illness
Treatment: Physical, harsh, even brutal
first at Bicêtre (1793/48) and
then at Salpêtrière (1795/50)
Nosographie philosophique (“Philosophical Classification of Diseases,” 1798/53)
Traité médico-philosophique sur l’aliénation mentale ou la mania (“Treatise on Insanity,” 1801/56)
The Nancy School
August Liébeault (1823-1904) French country doctor
hypnotic induction technique and treatment
unsuccessful book
successful treatment of Bernheim’s patient
Hippolyte Bernheim (1823-1919) French medical professor
founding of clinic
hypnosis as suggestibility
controversy with Charcot
Jean Martin Charcot (1825-1893): The “Napoleon of the Neuroses”
Early career as neurologist
Studied at Salpêtrière; obtained staff position (1862/37)
Described poliomyelitis, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy
Wrote Clinical Lectures on Certain Diseases of the Nervous System (1873/48)
Method: non-theoretical; inductive repetition; types vs. formes frustes
    e.g., epilepsy
Grand mal epilepsy
aura phase
tonic phase
clonic phase
Petit mal epilepsy
Excellent clinical lecturer (Binet, James, Janet & Freud)
Later career as a psychiatrist
Began to study hysteria in 1880s:
Discovery: “virile hysteria”
Etiology: dissociation of memories
Grande hystérie
epileptoid stage
large movement stage
hallucinatory stage
delirious stage
Included hypnotizability among hysterical symptoms
Grand hypnotisme
catalepsy stage
lethargy stage
somnambulism stage
Presents in French Academy of Sciences (1882/57)
Controversy with Nancy School
Decline in influence
The Endings
Pierre Janet (1859-1947)
Studied under Charcot
Succeeds him as head of the Psychological Laboratory
Wrote The Mental State of Hystericals (1892/33)
“fixed idea” causes mental dissociation
influence of the unconscious (priority dispute with Freud)
Influenced Jung, Breuer, Freud, and Prince
Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931)
Old and wealthy family; medical school; but dilettante
Two books on group psychology and the group mind:
The Psychology of Peoples (1894/53): unconscious and hypnotic influences
The Crowd (1895/54): suggestibility and contagion
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Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Life Ideas
The Voyage of the Beagle (1840-43/31-34):
the tremendous diversity of life
incessant environmental change
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859/50)
  • read Thomas Malthus on Sept. 28, 1838
  • sketch by 1842; 200 page manuscript by 1844
  • June 18, 1858, paper from Alfred Russell Wallace
  • July 1, 1858, joint presentation at Linnaean Society
  • November 24, 1859, Origin published
  • all 1250 copies sold on first day!
basic concepts
1. Spontaneous variation in individual characteristics
2. Overproduction -> “struggle for existence”
3. Natural selection of better adapted variants
4. Speciation; emergence of new species
5. Continuity without teleology
The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871/62)
human evolution; sexual selection
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872/63)
evolutionary basis of behavior; continuity
Biographical Sketch of an Infant (1877/66)
early child developmental psychology
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
Life Ideas
Principles of Biology (1864/44)
“survival of the fittest”
Principles of Psychology (1855/35)
evolutionary associationism (empiricist nativism)
development as differentiation and integration
Individual Differences: Differential Psychology
Ethology: Comparative Psychology
Functionalism: Functional Psychology
Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology
Evolutionary Epistemology and the BVSR Model of Creativity
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Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911)

Early Career as a Scientist
Later Career as a Psychologist
Hereditary Genius (1869/47):
Thesis: natural ability, eminence, and inheritance
1.  normal distribution and
2.  family pedigrees
Implication: eugenics
English Men of Science: Their Nature and Nurture (1874/52):
Impetus: Alphonse de Candolles’s study of environmental factors
Innovation: self-questionnaire method
Discoveries: birth order, education, etc.
Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development (1883/61):
Anthology: about 40 previously published articles
Some topics:
1.  Associations: word association test
2.  Mental imagery
3.  Twin studies
4.  Anthropometry ->

Galton’s “Anthropometric Laboratory” at the International Health Exhibition

Keenness of Sight and of Hearing
Colour Sense
Judgement of Eye
Breathing Power
Reaction Times
Strength of Pull and of Squeeze
Force of Blow
Span of Arms
Height, both standing and sitting
N = 9,337!
Natural Inheritance (1889/67):
Scatter plots
Regression line
Final Years
  • pioneering research on finger print identification (1890s/70s)
  • arithmetic of smells (1894/72)
  • Biometrica founded by Karl Pearson (1901)
  • Eugenics Laboratory at University College, London (1904)
  • helped found the Eugenics Education Society, which published Eugenics Review
  • wrote Memories of My Life (1908/86)
  • Influence
    Individual Differences
    Nature-Nurture Issue
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    Ernst Heinrich Weber (1795-1891)

  • son of theology professor; eldest of 3 brothers
  • medical degree University of Leipzig age 20
  • professor of anatomy at Leipzig age 23-76
  • younger brother Wilhelm Eduard a famous physicist
  • Contributions
    Quantitative research on sensory modalities from 1834
    Der Tastsinn und das Gemeingefühl (“The Sense of Touch and the General Sense”; 1846/51):
    1. Two-point threshold
    2. Just noticeable difference (jnd)
    3. Weber fraction: delta S / S = k
       k = .020   for lifting weights
       k = .015  for brightness of light
       k = .100  for loudness of tone
       but only valid in middle ranges
    Johannes Peter Müller (1801-1858)
  • son of shoemaker
  • originally planned to become a priest
  • medical degree age 20 University of Bonn
  • extremely neurotic, several nervous breakdowns; may have died a suicide
  • Contributions
    Doctrine of specific nerve energies (1826/26)
    Handbook of Physiology (1833/32)
    Students and disciples
    1. Theodor Schwann (1810-1882): pepsin, cell theory, “metabolism”
    2. Karl Ludwig (1816-1895): kymograph*
    3. Émile DuBois-Reymond (1819-1892): electro-chemical nature of nervous impulse*
    4. Ernst Brücke (1819-1893): Freud’s teacher*
    5. Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902): cellular theory of pathology
    6. Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1888): see below*
    *signed in blood 1842 anti-vitalist manifesto
    Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887)
    Life Contributions
    Elemente der Psychophysik (“Elements of Psychophysics”; 1860/59)
    1. Coined term: psychophysics
    2. Fechner’s law: S = k log R (R = Reiz, or “stimulus” in German)
    3. Methodology: method of limits, etc.
    Vorschule der Aesthetik (“Introduction to Aesthetics”; 1876/75)
    1. Experimental aesthetics
    2. First public opinion poll
    Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)
    Life Contributions
  • “The Conservation of Force” (1847/26)
  • Measured the speed of nervous conduction (1850/29)
  • Ophthalmoscope (1851/30)
  • Handbook of Physiological Optics (1856-76/35-46): e.g., Young-Helmholtz theory
  • The Theory of the Sensation of Tone as a Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music (1863/42): resonance place theory
  • Doctrine of unconscious inference
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    Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

    Life Career
    1857/25 started teaching on his own at Heidelberg
    1858/26 became assistant in Helmholtz’s lab and began to publish heavily
    1864/32 promoted to associate professor
    1867/35 offered course on “Physiological Psychology”
    1871/39 expected to succeed Helmholtz, but didn’t
    1874/42 became professor of philosophy at Zürich
    1875/43 call from University of Leipzig; a major chair of philosophy; acquired demonstration space
    1879/47 Psychologische Institut
    1881/49 founded Philosophische Studien ("Philosophical Studies")
    1892/60 lab moved into 11-room suite
    1897/65 given spacious new lab in especially designed new building
    1909/77 official orator for Leipzig’s 500-year jubilee
    1917/85 retired
    1920/88 died – shortly after finishing autobiography
    Major Books
    1) Beiträge zur Theorie der Sinneswahrnehmung (“Contributions to the Theory of Sensory Perception”), 1858-62 (26-30)
    argued for an experimental psychology as a new science;
    drew heavily on Weber, Müller, and Helmholtz
    2) Vorlesungen über die Menschen- und Tierseele (“Lectures on the Minds of Men and Animals”), 1863 (31)
    influenced by Darwin;
    argues for comparative psychology (yet only 26 of 454 pages devoted to animals)
    3) Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychologie (“Principles of Physiological Psychology”), 1873, 1874 (41, 42)
    his masterpiece; six editions over the next 37 years, last in 1911
    4) Grundriss der Psychologie (“Outline of Psychology”), 1896 (64)

    5) Völkerpsychologie: Eine Untersuchung der Entwicklungsgesetz von Sprache, Mythus, und Sitte (“Cultural Psychology: An Investigation of the Developmental Laws of Language, Myth, and Morality”), 1900-20 (68-88)

    higher mental functions through cultural materials
    Definition of the Field
    Subject matter: science of consciousness
    Distinction between immediate and mediated experience
    Nature of consciousness
    not stable, a process in flux
    not homogeneous – sensing, feeling, thinking, etc.
    cannot be reduced to physiological events
    mental events lawful
    Methodology of the Field
    Experimentation (e.g., reaction time)
    Historical analysis: for higher mental processes
    Goals of the Field
    Analyze conscious processes into their basic elements
    Discover how these elements are connected
    Determine their laws of association
    Elements of Experience
    Classified as sensations and feelings
    Feelings three dimensional:
    Consciousness and Attention
    Focus versus field of consciousness
    Apperception versus apprehension
    former act of will – hence voluntarism
    Creative Synthesis: whole greater than sum of parts

    Mind-Body Problem:

    Psychophysical parallelism
    Principle of psychic causality
    Students in Wundt’s Laboratory:
    G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924)*
    Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926)
    James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944)*
    Oswald Külpe (1862-1915)
    Hugo Münsterberg (1863-1916)*
    Charles E. Spearman (1863-1945)
    Edward Wheeler Scripture (1864-1943)
    George Stratton (1865-1957)
    E. B. Titchener (1867-1927)*
    Vladimir Bekhterov (1867-1927)*
    Lightner Witmer (1867-1956)

    *To be discussed in second half of course

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    William James (1842-1910):

    Life Career
    Crisis; attack of intense insecurity; suicidal; two events led to recovery: 1872(30) assistant professor of physiology (at $600/year); excellent instructor; teaching ratings
    1875-76 (33-34): taught “The Relations Between Physiology and Psychology,” first psychology course in US
    1875 (33): founded first psychology lab in US
    1876 (34): publishing psychology articles in Mind
    1878 (36): stopped teaching anatomy and physiology
    1880 (38): signed contract to write textbook; made assistant professor of philosophy
    1885 (43): full professor of philosophy
    1889 (47): full professor of psychology in 1897 (55): full professor of philosophy to 1907
    1910 (68): died
    Chief Works:
    Principles of Psychology (1890/48)
    Principles: Psychology, Briefer Course (1892/50)
    Talks to Teachers on Psychology (1899/57)
    Varieties of Religious Experience (1902/60)
    Subject Matter of Psychology:
     “Psychology is the Science of Mental Life, both of its phenomena and their conditions”
    Methods of Psychology
    Comparative method
    Specific Topics
    Stream of consciousness
    Five major characteristics:
    1. It is personal; my thought
    2. It’s constantly changing
    3. It’s sensibly continuous; fundamentally a single chain
    4. It deals with objects independent of itself – reality
    5. It’s selective
    Mind-Body Problem
    Emotion: James-Lange Theory
    Self: Self-esteem
    Extensively quoted by all major schools
    Precursor of the functionalist school
    APA President in 1894
    Many notable students, including
    James R. Angell
    Mary W. Calkins
    Edward L. Thorndike
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    Philosophical Roots
    David Hartley (1705-1757): Observations on Man (1747/42)
  • application of atomistic Newtonian philosophy to physiological psychology
  • "vibratiuncles" (vibrations of "white medullary substance of the brain")
  • these become associated through law of contiguity
  • Alexander Bain (1818-1903):
    The Senses and the Intellect (1855/37)
  • laws of association (contiguity and similarity)
  • new ideas by recombination
  • The Emotions and the Will (1859/41)

    Founded first psychology journal, Mind (1876/58)

    The Mills – father and son
    James Mill (1773-1836):
  • Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind (1829/56):
  • single principle of association: contiguity
  • additive summation: “mental mechanics”
  • John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
  • phenomenally precocious (IQ over 200)
  • a free-thinker (“On the Subjection of Women,” 1869/66)
  • active conception of mind: “mental chemistry”
  • Scientific Pioneers
    Russia: Vladimir M. Bekhterev (1857-1927):
  • in 1886 (29) established first laboratory of experimental psychology in Russia
  • studied the motor conditioned response (“associated reflex”)
  • wrote Objective Psychology in 1907 (50), which influenced American behaviorists (Watson) and made “reflexology” the dominant theme in Russian psychology
  • Germany: Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)
  • PhD in Philosophy in 1873 (23)
  • crystallizing experience: Fechner’s Elements of Psychophysics in 1876 (26)
  • Über das Gedächtnis (“On Memory,” 1885/35)
  • Berlin appointment in 1880, but later to Breslau
  • co-founded Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgan ("Journal for the Psychology and Physiology of the Sensory Organs," 1890/40)
  • invented a completion test (first published intelligence test for children)
  • wrote Die Grundzüge der Psychologie (“The Principles of Psychology”)
  • The Memory Experiments
  • invention of the nonsense syllable (sinnlose Silben)
  • use of a “savings score”
  • rigid experimental control and numerous replications to obtain statistical averages
  • Ebbinghaus’s “normal curve of forgetting”
  • experimental variations: number of syllables, overlearning, meaningful versus meaningless material, etc.
  • American Advocate: Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949):
  • crystallizing experience: James’ Principles
  • to Harvard to study under James
  • then to Columbia to study under Cattell
  • doctoral dissertation in 1898 (24): Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associative Process in Animals
  • appointment at Teachers College of Columbia University in 1899 (25)
  • became leader in mental testing movement
  • approximately 507 publications!
  • Selected Writings from a Connectionist’s Psychology (1949/75)
  • Connectionism
    Basic View of Psychology
    Substantive: the mind is a “connection system”


    experimentation (“puzzle box”)
    Elementary Principles of Connectionism
    the Law of Effect
    the Law of Exercise
    Contemporary Status

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    Edward Bradford Titchener (1867-1927)

    Life and Career Ideas
    Principal Works
  • Outline of Psychology (1896/29)
  • Primer of Psychology (1898/31)
  • article on “The Postulates of a Structural Psychology” (1898/31)
  • Experimental Psychology (1901-05/34-38):
  • Textbook of Psychology (1910/43)
  • Systematic Psychology: Prolegomena (1929/posthumous; articles written 1912ff/45)
  • General View of Psychology as a Science
    Subject Matter
    Experience – as dependent on experiencing person
    Consciousness – sum total of experiences at a given point in time
    Mind – cumulative sum of person’s experiences
    Method: systematic experimental introspection

    Goals of Discipline

    1. To reduce conscious processes to their simplest, most basic components: “mind is built up from its elements.”
    2. To determine how these elements are combined and their laws of combination
    3. To bring the elements into connection with their physiological conditions: psychological parallelism
    Note: Although divided psychology into human, animal, social, child, and abnormal psychology, most sympathetic toward first; strongly opposed to applied psychology.
    The Elements of Consciousness:
    Three categories: sensations, images, and affections

    For sensations alone: > 44,000 qualities

    32,820 visual
    11,600 auditory
    4 taste
    3 alimentary tract
    Classification according to
    protensity (duration)
    attensity (clearness)
    Sensations have all four, but affections lack clearness

    Rejected Wundt’s tridimensional theory of feeling:

    only one dimension – pleasantness vs. unpleasantness
    Even attention reduced to mere sensation:
    Core-Context Theory of Meaning: Elemental core plus meaning-providing context:
    Short-term Influence
    216 articles & notes and several books
    (some translated into Russian, Italian, German, Spanish, & French)

    54 doctorates in 35 years, including:

    Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939)
    Walter Bowers Pillsbury (1872-1960)
    Edwin G. Boring (1886-1968)
    Joy P. Guilford (1897-1987)
    Problems with Structuralism:
    1. Narrow definition of psychology
    2. Artificiality and sterility of approach
    3. Unreliability of introspection as a research tool
    Long-term Influence:
    1. Helped establish psychology as a science
    2. Some research findings still valid
    3. Target for criticism that helped establish new schools
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    William James et al.
    Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924): "Darwin of the Mind"
    His “firsts”:
    • 1st American Ph.D. in psychology (under William James, 1878)
    • 1st American student in the 1st year of the 1st lab in the world (Wundt’s)
    • 1st psychology lab in US in 1883 at Johns Hopkins
    • 1st psychology journal in US (American Journal of Psychology in 1887)
    • 1st president of Clark University in 1888
    • 1st President of the American Psychological Association in 1892 (which he organized)
    Major Works:
  • “The Contents of Children’s Minds Upon Entering School” (1883/39)
  • Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion, and Education (1904/60)
  • Jesus the Christ, in the Light of Psychology (1917/73)
  • Senescence: The Last Half of Life (1922/78)
  • Professional contributions:
    1891 founded Pedagogical Seminary (now Journal of Genetic Psychology)
    1904 founded the Journal of Religious Psychology (now defunct)
    1909 organized Clark symposium inviting Freud, Jung, Ferenczi, James, Titchener, Cattell, and many others
    1915 founded Journal of Applied Psychology
    Students (81 PhD’s at Clark from 1888):
    J. M. Cattell
    John Dewey
    Joseph Jastrow
    Arnold Gesell
    Francis Sumner
    Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930): A Little Chronology with a Big History Lesson

    Hugo Münsterberg (1863-1916)

    1908 (45) On the Witness Stand
    1909 (46) Psychotherapy
    1910 (47) Psychology and the Teacher
    1911 (48) Psychology and Industrial Efficiency
    1914 (51) Psychology and Social Sanity
    1916 (53) The Photoplay
    James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944): Career Development
    1886 (26) PhD under Wundt (then to Galton)
    1888 (28) Professor of Psychology at University of Pennsylvania (1st anywhere in world)
    1890 (30) paper coining term “mental tests”
    1891 (31) moves to Columbia (until 1917): more doctorates there than anywhere else in next 26 years (including Thorndike and Woodworth)
    1894 (34) started the Psychological Review (with Baldwin)
    1895 (35) President of the American Psychological Association
    1921 (61) began the Psychological Corporation
    Chicago Functionalists
    John Dewey (1859-1952) James Rowland Angell (1869-1949) Harvey Carr (1873-1954)
    Mental Testing Movement:
    Alfred Binet (1857-1911): Binet and Simon test of 1905
    William Stern (1871-1938): IQ
    Lewis M. Terman (1887-1956): Stanford-Binet test
    Robert Yerkes (1876-1956): army Alpha test
    David Wechsler (1896-1981): WAIS and WISC
    Charles Spearman (1863-1945): general ability
    Louis L. Thurstone (1887-1955): specific abilities
    Expanded range of field
    Established discipline in US
    Set stage for Behaviorism and Gestalt psychologies
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    Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)

    Life Ideas
    John Broadus Watson (1878-1958)
    Life Career Chief Works
    1913 (35) “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It” in Psychological Review
    1914 (36) Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology
    1915 (37) APA Presidential Address; Pavlov to replace introspection
    1919 (41) Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist
    1920 (42) “Conditional Emotional Reactions” (with Rosalie)
    1925 (47) Behaviorism
    1928 (50) Psychological Care of the Infant Child (with Rosalie)
    Subject matter: Behavior

    Two conceptions of consciousness

    in 1913: methodological behaviorism
    in 1929: metaphysical behaviorism
    Atomistic, mechanistic, and materialistic: stimulus-response reflexes

    Hence arises Watson’s

    1) Peripheral Theory of Thinking
    2) Conditioned emotional responses: Little Albert
    3) Habits: extreme nurture position
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    Edward Chance Tolman (1886-1959)

    Life and Career Chief Ideas
    Book Purposive Behavior in Animals and Man (1932/46):
    molar rather than molecular level;
    goal-directed behavior (“reeks of purpose”)
    Intervening variables: B = f (S, P, H, T,A)
    B = behavior
    S = environmental stimuli
    P = physiological drive
    H = heredity
    T = previous training
    A = age
    Learning theory
    sensory S-S rather than S-R learning
    cognitive theory of “sign Gestalts” (cognitive expectations)
    learning versus performance
    cognitive maps
    debates with Hull in 30s and 40s
    1. Introduced important cognitive ideas
    2. Many outstanding students: Campbell, Gleitman, Hochberg, Krech, etc.
    1. No Tolmanians
    2. Numerous neologisms: discriminanda, manipulanda, sign-Gestalt-readiness
    3. Failed to develop fully integrated theoretical system
    Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952)
    Life Career Influence
    1. Highly cited in the psychological literature
    2. Numerous disciples and followers, including future APA presidents and DSC Award recipients
    1. Never fully developed system
    2. What he did develop was extremely sterile as a precise mathematical framework
    B[urrhus] F[rederic] Skinner (1904-1990) Back to top
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    Nativism rather than Empiricism
    Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
    Phenomenology rather than trained Introspection
    “unbiased scrutiny of experience” or “disciplined naiveté”
    Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1749-1832): Theory of Colors (1810/61)
    Holism rather than Atomism (or Elementarism)
    Christian von Ehrenfels (1859-1932): Gestaltqualität: e.g., the same melody in different keys
    The Founding in 1910:
    Max Wertheimer (1880-1943)
    train-ride insight
    bought toy stroboscope to study phi phenomenon
    to Frankfurt Psychological Institute;
    two postdocs volunteered:
    Kurt Koffka (1886-1941)
    Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967)
    The triumvirate
    Wertheimer –
    difficulty getting ideas down on paper; but a prophet and catalyst, generating ideas for others to follow up
    Koffka –
    a leading organizer and promoter who brought movement to the US in 1927
    Köhler –
    most productive researcher and systematic theorist
    Before After
    Before After
    Before After
    Principles of Gestalt Psychology
    General Methodological Strategy
    1. Naïve phenomenology rather than trained introspection
    2. Holistic rather than atomistic analysis
    3. Perception as foundation for basic psychological principles
    4. Extend holistic principles to all fields of psychology
    5. Avoid premature quantification
    Gestalt Theory
    Phi phenomenon
    Perceptual organization
    Learning (relations)
    Thinking (insight)
    Cognitive psychology
    Personality and social psychology
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    Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

  • born to Jewish parents in Moravia:
  • father a part time rabbi (as was his grandfather)
  • but earned living as relatively poor wool merchant, with economic ups and downs
  • frequent threats of mob violence led to many changes of residence (moved to Vienna when Freud was 4)
  • mother age 19, very attractive; born 8 months after his parents' marriage
  • her 1st child (7 more to be born), but father’s 3rd, his older brothers as old as his mother
  • four childhood events that stood out in Freud’s memory
  • extremely precocious; encouraged by his parents
  • entered the gymnasium a year early
  • a brilliant student; head of class, and graduated summa cum laude at age 17
  • but difficult career choice: business, law, or medicine
  • 1873 (17) medical studies at the University of Vienna; took courses from Franz Brentano (1838-1892)
    1876 (20) began scientific research
    first scientific publications appeared
    worked for 6 years at the physiological institute of Ernst Brücke (1819-1892)
    1879 (23) military service; translated J. S. Mill
    1880 (24) returns to lab, but advised about career prospects
    1881 (25) earns MD as Nervenartzt, or clinical neurologist

    1882 (26) a “big year” for Freud: five events –

    1. studied under Theodor Meynert (1833-1893)
    2. began his private practice
    3. fell in love with Martha Berneys; 4 year engagement
    4. began friendship with Josef Breuer (1842-1925), who was dealing with case of Anna O.; “talking cure,” cathartic method, and positive transference
    5. on November 18 Freud notes that he first becomes aware of the power of the unconscious in the genesis of psychopathology
    1884 (28) first chance to become famous:
    discovers the analgesic properties of cocaine;
    resulting addiction and death of friend;
    missed out on credit for discovery while in France
    1885 (29) studied a few months with Charcot in Paris, then with Hippolyte Bernheim at Nancy
    1886 (30) marries Martha: 6 children, including daughter Anna Freud, and sons Jean Martin, Ernst, and Oliver
    Same year adopted various therapeutic techniques, such as hypnosis, but eventually develops method of free-association
    1895 (39) 1896 (40) Two critical events: 1897 (41): began using dream analysis; sudden revelation about the “great secret”
    1900 (44): publishes The Interpretation of Dreams; ends relationship with Fliess
    1902 (46) “Psychological Wednesday Circle”
    1904 (48) The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
    1905 (49) Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality
    1908 (52) First International Congress of Psychoanalysis; journal appears next year
    1909 (53) Hall’s invitation to Clark conference
    1910 (54) Leonardo da Vinci and a Memory of his Childhood

    1911 (55) Break with Adler
    1914 (58) Break with Jung and WW I breaks out
    1917 (61) Painful swelling in mouth discovered (smoked 20 cigars per day)
    1920 (64) Beyond the Pleasure Principle
    1923 (67) Diagnosed with mouth cancer; 33 operations, almost continuous pain
    1927 (71) The Future of an Illusion
    1930 (74) Civilization and Its Discontents: Thanatos as rival to Eros
    1933 (77) Freud’s books burned by the Nazis; by the end of 1934, most psychoanalysts had left Germany
    1938 (82) The Nazis invaded Austria; Freud’s home taken over; daughter arrested; goes to England
    1939 (83) Health fails rapidly, pain ever more severe, while the Nazi armies menace Europe

    September 1, Nazi Germany invades Poland; France and England declare war two days later
    September 23, dies
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    The Apostates

    Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
    Life Ideas
  • inferiority feelings, especially organ inferiority, produce compensation
  • striving for superiority; “will to power”
  • sex act as male domination; penis envy as symbolic resentment over male social dominance
  • style of life, “life plan,” or “superordinate guiding idea”; each the “artist of his own personality”
  • but may fail, creating a neurosis
  • order of birth:

  • oldest – insecure and hostile;
    youngest – spoiled, behavior problems as adult;
    middle – ambitious, rebellious, and jealous, but better adjusted than the others!
    American Journal of Individual Psychology
    Many Neo-Freudians actually Neo-Adlerians
    Sandor Ferenczi (1873-1933)
    Life Ideas
    Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961)
    Life Ideas
    Libido just generalized life energy

    Development stages different

    Infancy – nourishment
    Childhood – play
    Puberty – heterosexual
    Old age – spiritual
    Rejected Oedipal complex; child’s attachment to mother based on her food-providing function

    Psychologische Typen 1921 (46): direction of libidinal energy either

    introversion or

    Structure of personality; psyche has three levels:

    conscious (ego),
    personal unconscious,
    collective unconscious (archetypes)
    Otto Rank (1884-1939)
    Life Ideas
    Oedipal complex supplies themes for poetry and myth (1909-14/25-30)
    Presents first ideas on the birth trauma 1922 (38)
    Publishes The Trauma of Birth 1929 (45): “separation anxiety”
    Resigned from Vienna Psychoanalytic Society same year
    The Neo-Freudians
    Karen Horney (1885-1952)
    Life Ideas
    The Neurotic Personality of Our Time 1937 (52): “basic anxiety”
    No universal Oedipal complex
    Three kinds of neurotic response:
    Movement towards people
    Movement away from people
    Movement against people
    Possibility of self-help: Self-Analysis 1942 (57)
    Erich Fromm (1900-1980)
    Life Ideas
    Escape from Freedom 1941 (41): authoritarianism to fulfill a neurotic need
    Man for Himself 1947 (47): personal accountability
    The Sane Society 1955 (55): consensus-oriented, industrial man at mercy of material creations
    Greatness and Limitations of Freud’s Thoughts 1980 (80): Marx the better psychologist!
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    The Metasciences

    Humanistic Studies of Science
    History of Science
    George Sarton (1884-1956)
    E. G. Boring (1886-1968)
    Externalist (e.g., J. D. Bernal)
    Internalist (e.g., Thomas Kuhn)
    Philosophy of Science
    Ontological versus Epistemological
    Ontological (e.g., atoms, mind)
    Epistemological (e.g., rationalism, empiricism,  skepticism, Kantianism, logical empiricism)
    Prescriptive versus Descriptive
    Prescriptive (e.g., Bacon, Descartes, Newton, Popper)
    Descriptive (e.g., Piaget, D. T. Campbell)
    Scientific Studies of Science
    Sociology of Science
    The Sociology of Knowledge
    The Mertonian School: Robert K. Merton (1910-2003)
    Norms in science
    1. Universalism
    2. Originality
    3. Community
    4. Disinterestedness
    5. Humility
    6. Emotional neutrality
    7. Individual independence
    Critical research sites
    1. Inequality and elitism: e.g., Ortega hypothesis
    2. Age structure: e.g. Planck’s principle
    3. Multiples and priority disputes
    Psychology of Science
    General approaches
    Cognitive psychology
    Differential psychology
    Developmental psychology
    Social psychology
    Specific applications
    Psychology of psychologists
    Psychology of scientific genius
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    Below is a complete outline of all chapters and sections in Creativity in Science: Chance, Logic, Genius, and Zeitgeist.

    Next to each section I have placed asterisks indicating the importance of that material to your paper.  The greater the number of asterisks, the greater the significance of that material.  In particular,

    Extremely important; should be included or at least mentioned in any term paper = ***
    Moderately important; may or may not prove useful depending on your subject = **
    Least important; optional material; mostly useful if missing information relevant to above = *

    Naturally, any section or chapter that has no asterisk at all can be completely ignored for the purposes of your paper.  Save those pages for recreational reading in an airport terminal or sandy beach.

    Needless to say, this information will provide the basis for the lecture.

    I. Introduction: Scientific Creativity***

    A. Four Possible Perspectives**
    1. Logic*
    2. Genius***
    3. Chance*
    4. Zeitgeist**
    B. Their Potential Integration*

    II. Creative Products***

    A. Scientific Careers: Publications***
    1. Individual Variation***
    a. Elitist Distribution***
    b. Equal-Odds Rule**
    2. Longitudinal Change***
    B. Scientific Communities: Multiples*
    1. Distribution of Multiple Grades*
    2. Temporal Separation of Multiple Discoveries*
    3. Individual Variation in Multiple Participation**
    4. Degree of Multiple Identity*
    C. Conclusion: Statement of the Problem

     III. Combinatorial Processes**

    A. Assumptions
    B. Implications
    1. Research Publications*
    2. Multiple Discoveries*
    C. Extension
    1. Career Trajectories*
    2. Individual Differences***
    3. Interdisciplinary Contrasts**
    D. Objections
    1. Alternative Explanations
    2. Explanatory Limitations

    IV. Scientific Activity**

    A. Individuals: Research Programs***
    B. Fields: Peer Review**
    C. Domains: Disciplinary Zeitgeist*
    D. Two Implications*

    V.  Creative Scientists***

    A. Disposition***
    1. Intelligence***
    2. Associative Richness*
    a. Hierarchies*
    b. Constraints**
    3. Openness to Experience***
    4. Psychopathology***
    5. Janusian Thinking**
    B. Development***
    1. Family Experiences***
    a. Shared Environment***
    b. Nonshared Environment***
    2. Education and Training***
    a. Creative Scientists versus Creative Artists***
    b. Creative Scientists versus Noncreative Scientists***
    3. Sociocultural Context***
    a. Creative Epochs***
    b. Scientific Epochs***
    4. Conclusion*
    VI. Scientific Discovery**
    A. Logical Processes*
    B. Chance Processes*
    1. Insight Problems*
    2. Creative Production*
    3. Computer Problem Solving
    4. Group Creativity**
    C. Conclusion

    VII. Consolidation: Creativity in Science**

    A. Integration
    1. Chance*
    2. Logic*
    a. The Role of Logic
    b. The Limits on Logic*
    3. Zeitgeist*
    a. Disciplinary Zeitgeist*
    b. Sociocultural Zeitgeist*
    4. Genius***
    a. High versus Low Creativity***
    b. Chance and Creativity***
    B. Implications*
    1. Research Framework***
    2. Potential Applications*

    Also, don't forget to check out the grading criteria here
    and the term paper guidelines here.

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    New England Transcendentalists
    Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)
    Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862)
    Sören Kierkegaard (1813-1855)
    Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)
    Human Sciences
    Giambattista Vico (1668-1774)
    Edmund Husserl (1859-1938)
    Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911)

    The Founders

    Background history
    1961 Journal of Humanistic Psychology
    1962 American Association for Humanistic Psychology
    1964 Meeting at Old Saybrook, CT: The Third Force – Allport, Rogers, Maslow, May, and others
    1972 Division of Humanistic Psychology: 788 members by 1985

    Gordon Allport (1897-1967)

    Life Ideas
  • distinction between normal and neurotic personalities (unconscious, infantile past, etc.)
  • motivation: functional autonomy
  • role of self (propium): becoming
  • nomothetic vs. idiographic research methods
  • students: Jerome Bruner, Roger Brown, Gardner Lindzey, Herbert Kelman, Stanley Milgram, & Kenneth Gergen

  • Carl Rogers (1902-1987)

    Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)

    Rollo May (1909-1994)


    1. Experiential psychology
    2. Positive image of humans
    3. Role of self, of self-actualization and uniqueness
    4. Importance of values
    5. Psychotherapeutic innovations
    But challenge: Positive Psychology?

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    Influences from outside the discipline
    Noam Chomsky (1928- ): nativism; attack on B. F. Skinner
    Communications engineering: Information theory (1948)
    Cybernetics: Norbert Wiener’s self-governing systems (1948)
    Computer science:
    A. R. Turing’s test (1950)
    Von Neumann’s The Computer and the Brain (1958)
    Brain science: neurosciences:
    1948 Hixon Symposium on “Cerebral Mechanisms in Behavior”
    Karl Lashley “The Problem of Serial Order in Behavior.”
    Influences from within the discipline
    Early anticipations
    Wundt: mental chronometry
    Donders: reaction times
    Ebbinghaus: verbal memory
    Functionalists: operations of mind
    Gestalt psychologists
    Tolman’s cognitive behaviorism
    The gradual emergence
    Sir Frederic Bartlett (1886-1969): Remembering (1932/46)
    Jean Piaget (1896-1980): cognitive development
    Jerome Bruner (1915- ): A Study of Thinking (1956/42)
    George Miller (1920-2012): Plans and the Structure of Behavior (1960)
    Harvard’s Center for Cognitive Studies in 1962
    Ulrich Neisser’s Cognitive Psychology in 1966
    Journal Cognitive Psychology in 1969
    Cognition in 1972
    Representations – symbols, images, ideas, rules, etc.
    Computer as model or metaphor – input, output, storage, programs, algorithms, heuristics, memory, etc.
    Generic thinker – ignore affect, context, culture, history
    Interdisciplinary nature – psychology, neurosciences, AI, philosophy, linguistics, anthropology
    Roots in classical philosophical problems – epistemology, mind-body, nativism
    Verbal learning and memory – semantic clustering

    Memory storage systems –

    Sensory, STM, LTM
    Procedural, semantic, episodic
    Mental images – Mental rotation

    Computer simulation (AI) –

    General Problem Solver
    Expert Systems
    Discovery Programs
    Connectionist Models

    Mental chronometry and response times – mathematical models

    Psycholinguistics – bottom-up vs. top-down

    Lack of unified theory or paradigm
    Reliance on laboratory experiments with college students isolated from context
    Reintroduction of soft data
    Infatuation with computer metaphor
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    Current Developments

    The death of schools and systems
    in scientific psychology
    humanistic psych?
    cognitive psych?
    in clinical practice
    eclectic approaches replacing
    orthodox psychoanalysis
    behavior modification
    “managed care” of HMOs
    Substantive pluralism: hence
    the proliferation of journals: e.g., APA
    none in 1892
    6 in 1942
    > 20 by mid-1980s
    and now? (plus division journals)
    the proliferation of APA divisions
    Fragmentation and disintegration
    Experimental vs. correlational
    e.g., Wundt vs. Galton
    Cognitive vs. personality/social/etc.
    James tough/tender minded
    Natural vs. human sciences
    Sciences vs. humanities
    1892 APA founded by academics
    1936 AAAP
    1936 SPSSI
    1946 APA adopts division structure; practitioners become majority
    1988 attempted reorganization failed
    1989 APS formed
    Emergence of professional schools
    Hence, tripart division?
    Future course: Will psychology continue?
    The criteria of science: explanation, prediction, and control
    The problems of human subjectivity
    Subjectivity of subject matter
    Subjectivity of choice of topic
    But ... what other discipline?
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    The Lectures

    The Ancients
    Medieval & Renaissance
    British Empiricists
    Continental Rationalists
    French Clinicians
    British Evolutionists
    German Physiologists
    Behaviorism I
    Behaviorism II
    Gestalt Psychology
    Psychoanalysis I
    Psychoanalysis II
    Humanistic Psychology
    Cognitive Psychology
    The Themes
    What is human nature?
    How are humans related to nonhuman animals?
    How are the mind and the body related?
    Where does human knowledge come from?
    Rationalism versus Irrationalism
    Consciousness versus Unconsciousness
    Reductionism versus Nonreductionism
    Atomism versus Holism
    Objective versus subjective reality
    Mechanism versus vitalism
    Determinism versus Freedom
    What is the basis for human happiness?
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    Last Revised: March 12, 2012