TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 MULTIMETHOD APPROACH

What Is Behavioral Research?

Theory and Research

Validity and Reliability

Why Do Behavioral Research?

Specific Methods

Multimethod Approach

Knowledge Is Connected

Dealing with reactivity

Pilot Study

Longitudinal and Cross-sectional Research

General Laws and Local Conditions

Practical Experience

Summary

2 ETHICS IN BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH

Protecting the Welfare of Research Participants

Outside Review

Confidentiality and Anonymity

Deception

Comment on participant risk

Issues of Scientific Misconduct

Psychologists' Code of Ethics

Anthropologists' and Sociologists' Code of Ethics

Local Procedures

Summary

3 SEARCH THE TECHNICAL LITERATURE

Source Credibility

Primary and Secondary Sources

Scientific

Journal Articles

Books of Readings

Books

Mass Media

Internet

Finding Reverences

How Far to Search?

Metaanlaysis

Searching the World Wide Web

Electronic Newsletters, Journals, Abstracts, and Reports

Additional Resources

Citation Search

Direct Consultation

Summary

4 OBSERVATION

Casual Observation

Systematic Observation

How to Be a Good Observer

Reliability in Systematic Observation

Qualitative Approaches

Participant Observation

Ethnography

Doing Qualitative Observation

Stresses on the Observer

Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research

Equipment

Limitations

Summary

5 MAPPING AND TRACE MEASURES

Mapping

Behavioral Maps

Place-Centered Maps

Individual-Centered Maps

Limitations

Cognitive Maps

Limitations

Trace Measures

Limitations

Summary

6 EXPERIMENTATION

The Special Nature of the Experiment

Variables

Independent and Dependent Variables

Variables in Experiments

Generating Hypotheses

Operational Definitions

Example: Dressing for Success

Experimental Control

Eliminating or Holding Extraneous Variables Constant

Subjects

Experimenter

Setting

Apparatus

Procedure

Measurement of Extraneous Variables

Using a control group

Using subjects as their own controls

Limitations of repeated measure designs

Doing an Experiment

Getting Ideas

Designing and

Running an Experiment

Types of Experiments

True experiments

Quasi-experiments

Single-Subject Experiments

Equipment

Using the Internet

Limitations

Summary

7 SIMULATION

What Is a Simulation?

Environmental Simulations

Games

Role-playing Exercises

General

Comments

Limitations

Summary

8 INTERVIEW

Uses and Types of Interviews

Unstructured Interviews

Structured Interviews

Semi-structured Interviews

Telephone

Interviews

How to Interview

Deciding What to Ask

Obtaining Permission

Street Corner Interviews

Setting the Stage

Nonverbal Aspects

Pacing and Timing

Probes

Recording the Information

Minimizing Sources of Error

Tact and Diplomacy

Ending the Interview

Analyzing the Results

Coding

Reporting Interview Results

Limitations

Focus Groups

Strengths and Limitations

Summary

9 THE QUESTIONNAIRE

Questionnaire Construction

Content

Format

Open-ended and Closed Questions

Ranking versus Rating

Matrix Questions

Measuring the Middle Position

Combining Question Types

Number of Questions

Wording Your Questions

Balance

Layout

Introductory Statement

Question Order

Answer Format

Closing Statement

Pretesting

Reproducing the Questionnaire

Distributing the Forms

Group Meetings

Individual Distribution

Mail Surveys

Cover letter

Increasing Return Rates

Scoring

Interpretation

Describing Survey Results

Comparison of Interviews and Self-Administered Questionnaires

Internet Surveys

Limitations

Summary

10 ATTITUDE AND RATING SCALES

What Is a Scale?

Rating Scales

Limitations

Levels of Measurement

Attitude Scales

Likert-type Scale

Construction

Initial Administration and Scoring

Selecting the Final Items

Validity and Reliability

Limitations

Semantic Differential

Selection of Terms

Length and Layout

Scoring

Limitations

Performance Rating Scales

Limitations

Consumer Rating Scales

Limitations

Sensory Evaluation

Limitations

Summary

11 CONTENT ANALYSIS

Quantification in Content Analysis

Use

Finding Categories

Sampling

Sampling Print Media

Sampling Other Media

Reliability

Limitations

Summary

12 PERSONAL DOCUMENTS AND ARCHIVAL MEASURES

Personal Documents

Research Diaries

Activity Log

Personal Diaries and Journals

Letters

Limitations

Life Histories

Autobiography

Biography

General comments

Limitations

Archival measures

Uses

Finding Data

Underreporting and bias

Limitations

Summary

13 CASE STUDY

Advantages of a Case Study

Choosing a Topic

Unusual Individuals

Obtaining Cooperation

Cross-Verification

Observation

Trace Measures and Physical Artifacts

Public and Private Records

Limitations

Summary

14 ACTION RESEARCH

Trade-offs

Self-survey

Other Techniques

Steps in Action Research

Why Action Research Is Different

Tower or Swamp?

Summary

15 THE BIG FUZZIES: RESEARCH ON DIFFICULT-TO-DEFINE CONCEPTS

Positive Psychology

A Word on Qualitative Research

Summary

16 STANDARDIZED TESTS AND INVENTORIES

What is a Test?

Test Reliability and Validity

Using Tests and Inventories

Locating Suitable Tests

Obtaining the Tests

Constructing a Test

Limitations

Summary

17 SAMPLING

Types of Samples

Probability Sampling

Random Sample

Stratified Sample

Nonprobability Sampling

Quota Sample

Purposive Sample

Convenience Sample

Generalization from Probability and Nonprobability Samples

How Large a Sample?

Gaining Access

Measuring Non-respondent Bias

Describing the Method of Sampling

Limitations

Summary

18 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

Descriptive Statistics for Categorical Measures

Descriptive Statistics for Continuous Measures

Measures of Central Tendency

Mean

Median

Mode

Measures of Variability

Range

Standard Deviation

Figures

Types of Figures

Bar graphs

Line graphs

Pie charts

Guidelines for Figures

Statistical Tabulation and Analyses

Calculators

Computers

Software for Data Analysis

Summary

19 INFERENTIAL STATISTICS

First, Some Background

Testing the Null Hypothesis

Alternative Hypothesis

Probability Levels

Statistical Tests for Continuous Data

A Precondition

Comparing Two Groups - the t test

t ratio for Independent Groups

Interpreting the t ratio

Hand calculation

Understanding the computer printout

t ratio for Paired Scores

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

One-way ANOVA

Hand Calculation

Understanding the Computer Printout

Advanced ANOVA designs

ANOVA for Groups of Unequal Size

Factorial Design

Repeated Measures Design

Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

Multivariate Designs (MANOVA)

A Statistical Test for Categorical Data: Chi-Square

Hand Calculation

Understanding the computer printout

Limitations of Chi-square

Correlation

Pearson Product-Moment Coefficient (r)

Hand Calculation

Understanding the computer printout

Spearman Rank-order Coefficient

Computing ranks

Hand calculation

Understanding the computer printout

Correlating a Continuous Variable with a Ranked Variable

Other Measures of Correlation

Presenting the Results of Statistical Tests

Limitations of This Chapter

Summary

20 WRITING AND REVIEWING A RESEARCH REPORT

Article for a Scientific Journal

Title Page

Abstract

Introduction

Method

Participants

Apparatus/materials

Setting

Procedure

Results

Tables and Figures

Discussion

References

Helpful Hints

Technical Reports

Executive summary

Appendix

Writing a Critique

Need for Empathy

Summary

21 AFTER THE REPORT

Feedback to Participants

Further Research

Publishing the Findings

Research Journals

Choosing a Journal

Drafts

Dealing with Rejection

Preprints

Page Proofs

Reprints

Other Publication Outlets

Application

News Releases

Professional Meetings

Tips for Talks

Poster Sessions

Summary

22 CONCLUDING NOTES

Helpful Hints

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