The prevalence and nature of AIDS-related
stigma in the United States were measured through telephone
surveys conducted with national probability samples of US
adults in 1997 and 1999.
For the 1997 survey, the sampling frame was
the population of all English-speaking adults (at least
18 years of age) residing in households with telephones
within the 48 contiguous states. The sample was drawn using
a list-assisted Random Digit Dialing (RDD) procedure. Interviews
were fully or substantially completed with 1,309 respondents
(response rate = 65.1%).
The 1997 sample was 55.3% female and 79% non-Hispanic
White, with a mean age of 44 years (range = 18 - 93), a
median educational level of 1-2 years of college or post-secondary
school, and a median income of $40-50,000.
Approximately two years later (between September,
1998, and May, 1999), another survey was conducted with
a new sample, referred to hereafter as the 1999 survey.
It used the same sampling frame and RDD procedure as the
1997 survey. Interviews were fully or substantially completed
with 669 new respondents (response rate = 58%).
The 1999 sample was 55% female and 82% non-Hispanic
White, with a mean age of 45 years (range = 18 - 89), a
median educational level of some college, and a median income
All interviews for both surveys were conducted
by the Survey Research Center at the University of California
at Berkeley, using their computer-assisted telephone interviewing
(CATI) system. No limit was set on the number of recontact
attempts for each number. Upon reaching an adult, the interviewer
enumerated the first names of all household members 18 years
or older. The target respondent was selected at random from
The median duration of the interview was 44
minutes in both years.
To examine trends, we compare data from the
1997 and 1999 surveys to findings from a previously reported
1990-91 national telephone survey (hereafter referred to
as the 1991 survey). The 1991 survey results presented below
use unweighted data and are based on that study's primary
sample (N = 538), which was selected using RDD procedures
and interview methods comparable to those in the 1997 and